Abstract The emergence of new energy sources has transformed traditional energy sources such as electricity and coal. The picture shows the maintenance of power supply equipment for employees of a power supply company to ensure the smooth development of spring irrigation. As an unconventional natural gas, shale gas has attracted wide attention in recent years. With the continuous improvement of the level of horizontal wells and fracturing technology...
The sudden emergence of new energy sources has transformed traditional energy sources such as electricity and coal. The picture shows the maintenance of power supply equipment for employees of a power supply company to ensure the smooth development of spring irrigation.
As an unconventional natural gas, shale gas has attracted wide attention in recent years. With the continuous improvement of horizontal well and fracturing technology, shale gas exploration and development is forming a boom.
The United States was the first to act. As a country with a lack of conventional natural gas, the United States has set off a a€?shale gas revolutiona€? in the last decade. Relying on mature development and production technology and perfect pipeline network facilities, in recent years, the US shale gas exploration and development technology has rapidly broken through and the output has increased rapidly. Through the "shale gas revolution," the United States was transformed from a natural gas importer to a natural gas exporter.
Shale gas has become a new bright spot in the exploration and development of global oil and gas resources and is changing the world energy landscape. Since the success of the a€?Shale Gas Revolutiona€? in North America, followers believe that this unconventional natural gas that needs to be mined can be a€?far-reachinga€? in China.
At present, China's energy is still in an era dominated by coal, and the dependence on imported crude oil is high. As China's energy consumption continues to rise, vigorously promoting the development of shale gas has become an important and urgent strategic task in China's oil and gas resources. According to the Ministry of Land and Resources, the potential for shale gas recoverable resources in China is 25.08 trillion cubic meters (excluding the Qinghai-Tibet region). China's national economic and social development "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" clearly requires "to promote the development and utilization of unconventional oil and gas resources such as shale gas" to alleviate the contradiction between China's natural gas supply and demand.
After years of exploration, China's shale gas exploration and development has achieved positive results, but China's development of shale gas started late, so strengthen technical research, learn from foreign advanced concepts, improve industrial policies, reduce development costs, and become China's shale gas development. The only way to go.
At present, the development technology of shale gas in North America is basically mature, which provides a reference for the development of shale gas in China:
First, the open competitive environment has played a catalytic role. The shale gas exploration and development in the United States has a low barrier to entry, and the exploration and development entities are diversified, forming a market competition pattern for the coexistence of large and medium-sized enterprises.
Second, technological progress has played a catalytic role. The US government set up special funds for shale gas basic research and key technology research, and successfully developed shale gas horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing technology and applied it on a large scale.
Third, the preferential policies introduced have played a supporting role. From 1978 to 1992, the US federal government implemented a subsidy policy for the development of shale gas for 15 years, which effectively supported and promoted the exploration and development of shale gas.
Fourth, sound market supervision has played a protective role. All management departments related to shale gas exploration and development have assigned supervisory functions in their duties.
Fifth, a sound infrastructure has played a supporting role. The US natural gas pipeline network and the urban gas supply network are very developed, which greatly reduces the initial investment in the development and utilization of shale gas and reduces the market risk.
For China, the potential of shale gas resources is large, but for large-scale exploration and development, it is necessary to determine the amount of resources that can be harvested in favorable target areas and regions, which is difficult to work, has large capital investment, and has a long implementation period. In addition, the key technologies for shale gas development in China have not yet been mastered, and large-scale and diversified investment mechanisms have not yet been formed. Therefore, the revelation of the a€?shale gas revolutiona€? is also the direction of shale gas development in China:
First, mastering core technologies is the key. In the late 1990s, horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing technology pioneered breakthrough applications in the United States, releasing shale gas as a prospect for mining and application of unconventional oil and gas resources. The "Shale Gas Revolution" has since opened the curtain. The age of shale deposits in China is early and deep, and the exploration and development is difficult. At present, no enterprise has mastered the core technology of hydraulic fracturing. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the technological breakthroughs in shale gas exploration and development technology and form the core technology of exploration and development with Chinese characteristics.
Second, the establishment of a timely and effective supporting management system is the foundation. It is imperative to develop rules for the development of shale gas exploration and development. At the same time, on the basis of further improving and implementing the existing preferential policies, relevant departments should also introduce and implement specific fiscal and tax incentive policies to promote shale gas exploration and development. In addition, it is necessary to improve the shale gas utilization supporting infrastructure and implement the construction of shale gas external pipeline.
Third, it is essential to have a good "environmental barrier". At present, the pollution problem caused by shale gas mining has caused controversy in Europe and the United States, and China cannot ignore it. In the medium and long term, shale gas will provide sufficient energy for China. In order to better exploit shale gas, China should further improve the domestic regulatory system based on the model of other countries, especially on environmental issues.
In the future, the shale gas industry will escort China's economic development, but we must also face up to the various environmental and technical problems faced in shale gas mining, and solve it through a positive approach to achieve a harmonious development of resources and the environment.
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