Labor-intensive industries represented by light industry and textiles were once the main force of China's foreign trade exports. According to various indications revealed at the 112th Canton Fair, the low-end production capacity of these industries is facing increasingly prominent orders reduction and capacity shifting pressure. The labor hardships are getting worse. "Vietnamese workers are 600 yuan a month, and our domestic workers' wages account for 20%-30% of the cost." Mr. Lu, the manager of Guangdong Xiongying Group Co., Ltd., calculated the account for the reporter. In addition to workersa€? wages, land costs in Southeast Asian countries are relatively low. Cultural proximity is also an important reason why factories can move smoothly to Southeast Asia. Mr. Lu said: "There are many ceramic factories in Chaozhou that have been transferred to Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Cambodia. In addition to the relatively low cost, Chaozhou people have been doing business in Southeast Asia for hundreds of years, and they can basically communicate in Chaozhou dialect in Thailand. Taiwanese businessmen have also begun to shift their investment to Southeast Asia. The survey of China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Light Industrial Products and Crafts shows that China's light industry has already shifted outwards, especially in some low-end processing and manufacturing sectors. a€?In 2008, the light industry maintained a high-speed growth throughout the year, but the volume of some industries has begun to slow down. In 2009, there has been a significant reduction.a€? Li Wenfeng, vice president of the China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Light Industrial Products and Crafts, said. According to survey data from the Guangdong Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Department, there have been 41 investment projects transferred from Guangdong to China this year, of which 15 and 13 have been transferred to Malaysia and Vietnam respectively. They are based on textiles, clothing, shoes and hats. the Lord. In recent years, Nike and other international companies have also seen the practice of transferring some of their foundry business from China to Southeast Asia. Some enterprises in China have also taken the initiative to transfer some of their production capacity to maintain international competitiveness. "At present, China's demographic dividend window tends to close, labor difficulties and labor costs are getting worse. Our advantages are slowly disappearing." Deng Yujun, a professor at the School of Economics and Management of South China Normal University, said that at the same time, the RMB exchange rate and target market have become The factory chooses important factors for external migration. "Compared with the electronics industry, the product characteristics of labor-intensive industries such as shoes, hats, clothing, furniture, etc. determine that these industries have high requirements for marine transportation, and it is unlikely to reduce cost pressure by transferring to the mainland. These industries are located in the world. Regional gradient transfer is a mature path for international industrial adjustment.a€? Deng Yujun said. Information from Yantian Port in Shenzhen confirms this. According to the relevant person in charge, since the first half of this year, one of the indicators of the decline in the volume of transportation in Hong Kong has been the sharp decline in the export volume of furniture in Dongguan and Shenzhen. The demand for ocean transportation is also declining. "These production capacity is mostly to Southeast Asia. Transferred." The shortcomings of setting up factories in Southeast Asia, but the industry believes that not only the medium and high-end production capacity of China's labor-intensive industries remains stable, even the outflow of low-end production capacity will not be too fast, mainly because China still maintains the "world factory". Advantage. a€?There is a big defect in the establishment of factories in Southeast Asia. The industry chain is not matched. You have ceramic soil, there is no supporting refining factory, and it is useless to dig it out.a€? Cai Zhentong, vice chairman of Guangdong Sitong Group, said that in addition, the quality of workers It is also a big obstacle. Although the cost of labor in Southeast Asia is low, the mobility of workers is large. The practice of liquidating wages every week also affects the liquidity of enterprises, and it is also a test for the management ability of enterprises. In Cai Zhentong's view, China still maintains its advantages in terms of investment environment, production of cost-effective products, and product diversity. With the continuous outflow of low-end manufacturing capacity, China's foreign trade pattern is quietly shifting from quantity to price. "From the foreign trade figures this year, the growth of light industrial products is mainly driven by price. Jewelry increased by 70% from January to August, but its average unit price rose by 60%. From January to September, furniture rose by 30%, of which prices rose. 21.5%." Li Wenfeng said. Li Wenfeng believes that China's foreign trade needs to face up to the fact that the comparative advantage of the past is disappearing, and new advantages have yet to be cultivated. From the price-driven model, although some well-operated companies have gained the advantage of rising bargaining through the development of new products, most of them are driven by cost. Experts believe that China's manufacturing needs to cultivate new foreign trade growth points. "The significance of transformation and upgrading is to promote the high-end of the industrial chain, so that China's industrial sector has entered the world's advanced level." Deng Yujun said that the individual's response is to improve independent innovation and cultivate independent brands, replace low-end production capacity, and upgrade product grades. In the future, this will eventually lead to the formation of mature technical capabilities and a complete development system.
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