Analysis of Internal and External Factors Affecting Stone Life

I. Overview

People often think that stone is a long-lasting high-grade decorative material, which can be used once and for all. In fact, in the natural environment, dust, exhaust gas, acid rain, freezing and other pollutants can easily cause fading, pollution and even damage to the stone used in the building, which greatly reduces the decorative effect and service life of the stone. Due to the mistakes in the construction method, the failure of the stone decoration effect will also be caused, and the building has to be refurbished in a short period of time, resulting in a large waste of manpower and material resources.

There are many reasons for the stone to produce various lesions and shorten the service life. In general, it is mainly for the following reasons: First, internal causes: changes caused by the structure and chemical composition of the stone; second, external causes: both mining and processing methods, installation and construction The influence of factors such as process and use environment.

Second, the main reason affecting the service life of stone and the cause of stone disease

Common stone diseases mainly include: water spots are not dry, salt precipitation back to alkali, Baihua, rust spots yellow, frost damage, surface corrosion, pigment pollution (including oil), moss growth and powder spalling. There are many reasons for the stone to produce various lesions and shorten the service life. There are two main reasons for the classification: one is the internal reason, that is, the structural structure and chemical composition of the stone; the second is the external reason: mining and processing methods, installation The impact of factors such as construction process and use environment.

1. Reasons from the inside of the stone

(1) Structural structure of stone: There are micro-cracks and capillary pores in natural stone. It will absorb fine dust and dirt in the air for a long time, and slowly penetrate into the interior of the stone due to capillary action, thus greatly reducing the decoration of the stone. Performance and service life. The smaller the pores, the stronger the capillary action and surface adsorption.

(2) Relatively complex chemical composition: Some components in the stone are easy to interact with the external environment, causing erosion or variability of the stone. Stones generally contain iron components to varying degrees, and are corroded by moisture to produce rust yellow. The higher the iron content in the stone, the more likely it is to produce rust yellow. In addition, most of the natural marble is mainly composed of carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, and a small amount of basic oxides. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are relatively stable compounds, but some basic oxides are chemically unstable. In humid environments, they are easily soluble in acidic oxides such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, and dioxide in the air. A chemical reaction occurs in nitrogen to change the physical structure inside the marble. Similar chemical damage will occur on other stone materials. Lighter will make the surface of the stone tarnish, and even the color will fade and appear stains; in the case of heavy, the hardness of the natural stone will decrease and the surface will be weathered and peeled off.

2, the reason from the outside of the stone

There are many external reasons that affect the decorative effect and service life of stone, such as improper maintenance during mining, storage and transportation, the influence of bonding materials used to install stone, and natural environmental factors.

(1) Influence of mining, processing and storage and transportation process : For example, the crack of stone may be related to improper mining method; the iron tool used for processing may also cause hidden danger to the rust of stone, and improper stone coolant may pollute. Stone; improper maintenance during storage and transportation will also cause rust and grass rope yellow pollution.

(2) Impact of installation and construction technology and bonding materials: If the cement is installed with cement mortar and paste, the alkaline soluble substances in the cement will ooze along the capillary pores of the stone due to the erosion of rainwater. On the surface, alkaline compounds such as Ca(OH)2 react chemically with CO2 and H2O in the air to form CaCO3 which crystallizes on the surface of the stone to form a salt-reducing alkali. In addition, some of the salts formed after cement hydration are hygroscopic. After infiltrating into the stone, they will absorb the moisture in the air and form water spots on the surface of the stone, which seriously affects the appearance. In addition, improper use of adhesive materials, such as certain stone adhesives, may also cause yellowing of the stone.

(3) Impact of environmental factors : Environmental factors include environmental pollution, acid rain erosion and freezing damage. Polluted air, acid rain and other man-made pollutants in the natural environment can cause pollution and corrosion to the stone. In addition, freezing damage is also an environmental factor that cannot be ignored. Because the stone has water absorption (even if it is made of dry hanging stone), in the cold winter, the weathering process is accelerated by freezing, so that the strength is reduced, which not only affects the use. Life expectancy also threatens personal safety.

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